When it comes time for you to start maintaining and fixing your own plumbing, you may wonder where to begin. There are so many things to consider when purchasing tools and equipment and when following regulations and instructions. The helpful tips offered in this article will give you the information you need in order to be a smarter plumber.
Don’t treat your toilet like a garbage can if you want to avoid a lot of potential plumbing problems. Don’t put disposable sanitary objects down the toilet. The sewage system cannot deal with these items and will become clogged. Also, try to use the smallest amount of toilet paper you can.
Before hiring a contractor for plumbing or other jobs, make sure you look into their records through the Department of Consumer Affairs. This will allow you to be sure that they are properly licensed and that they have not received a ton of complaints from previous clients. Their license must be current and in good standing, otherwise you do not want them in your home.
Water valves that are rarely ever used often become fused together. You can maintain them using penetrating oil, and make sure to turn them once in a while so that they do not start sticking.
Maintain your faucets and pipes to prevent leaks. A leak that goes untreated may waste a great deal of water–as much as 150 gallons per day! Therefore, it is important to regularly check your pipes for drips or leaks. Regular maintenance will prevent significant wear and tear.
Take the time to ensure that everyone in your family knows how to cut off the water from the valve in your home. There should be a water meter either on it or possibly close by. Toilets, sinks and some other fixtures can have cut off valves of their own. Make sure your entire family is aware of the location of these shut-off valves and how to use them in the event of an emergency.
Clean out plugs can be extremely tricky to remove; they tend to stick easily. Here are two ways you can use to deal with a stubborn plug. The first method involves a hammer and chisel to loosen the fitting. Your second option is to simply chisel through the plug itself.
It is a advisable to have a septic tank pumped every five years to keep it in peak condition. Doing so will help to avoid septic tank problems by ensuring that the tank does not become clogged with sediment. Pumping a septic tank might cost a lot of money, but it will cost your more money to clean any back up in sewage you may have had, and replacing your septic tank costs even more!!
Plumbing should not seem as complicated now. There are just many basic things to cover. In order to start, you just have to know how to properly research, how to work hard, and how to use your common sense in order to discover the best methods for the job.
img source : appszoom.com
We all have questions on plumbing on occasion. We all want to learn how to maintain plumbing systems and fix problems. Take a few minutes to read this article and find out how you can face plumbing emergencies.
Overly tightening a pipe can be as damaging as not making it tight enough. You can damage threads and run the risk of cracking the pipe; make sure to tighten it just enough to stop leaks, not more.
It is important to know where your cut-off valve is for the water on your property. There will be a water meter there or nearby. Toilets, sinks and some other fixtures can have cut off valves of their own. You will want to make your family aware of the location of each valve, and add markings that give directions on how to shut each one off whenever an emergency arises.
If you notice water draining into your dishwater, check your kitchen sink. The hose might not be installed properly. This hose should lead uphill first and then downhill so the water from the sink and the dishwater never mix.
If you’re needing plumbing fixtures, consider getting brass ones. Brass tends to be much more durable than other materials in plumbing, so you will not need to replace the fixtures as frequently. Also, the look of brass fixtures is much nicer than similar counterparts. These are located in most home repair store.
The dryer has a lint trap that must be kept clean. By doing this simple task, you can circumvent a great deal of trouble. including prevention of fires. Inspect your lint trap every so often for tears or holes that could cause lint to go into your pipes, this could cause clogs or other problems you will have to deal with.
Government agencies can provide information about plumbing contractors. You will be able to check their license and know if people have complained about this specific contractor. Unless a contractor’s license is in favorable standing and up-to-date, you wouldn’t want to work with them.
Choose which drain cleaners you use with care. Some drain cleaners have strong chemicals that can damage the pipes. Read the label, and choose one that says it is safe for your plumbing. Some of these products contain chemicals which kill certain beneficial bacteria that your plumbing system needs to work correctly. These chemical can also harm people, if ingested.
You might not be able to control which plumber you have to use, but you can find out all you can about them on the Internet. If an insurance company is requiring you to use a certain plumber, doing a background check on him can put you on guard should he have a bad reputation.
If grout has gotten stuck in the line, trying to clean it out yourself is probably not the best idea. You could dislodge the grout and cause it go further down. It works better if you have plastic pipes instead of metal pipes. However, you may never be fully rid of the grout without the assistance of a professional.
Being prepared will be of assistance, should a plumbing issue arise. Routine maintenance on your home plumbing can prevent future problems from arising. Follow the advice offered in this article, and be ready to take care of all of your future plumbing needs.
img source : electroplumbingmallorca.com
The real flavor of water refreshes and satisfies. But today, enjoying a drink of water may not be as simple as filling your glass from the tap. Even when treated by an approved municipal water system, the goodness of water is often marred by minerals, organic matter or chlorine.
Reverse Osmosis is a filtration process used for water. It works by using pressure to force a solution through a membrane, retaining the solute (dissolved solids) on one side and allowing the treated solvent (water) to pass to the other side.
The membranes used for reverse osmosis water systems have a dense barrier designed to allow only water to pass through while preventing the passage of solutes (such as salt ions). This process requires that a high pressure be exerted on the high concentration side of the membrane.
Features For Quality Drinking Water:
- Designed for maximum water cleaning efficiency with no operating costs except for periodic replacement of disposable filters
- Efficient on water pressure as low as 30 psi
- Non-electric operation
- Up to 33% more tank pressure for increase flow and volume
- Fills holding tank up to 5 times faster than other systems
- Membrane technology consistently reduces up to 99% of total dissolved solids (TDS)
- Includes a long-reach dispensing spigot with air gap
- Completely pre-tested with a 25-year limited warranty
Water Contaminant Reduction:
The H3500 reverse osmosis water softener also reduces contaminants found in a household’s water supply such as: Arsenic (Pentavalent) <=50 ppb, Barium, Cadmium, Cyst, Fluoride, Chromium (Hexavalent), Lead, TDS, Chromium (Trivalent), Nitrate/Nitrite, Radium 226/228and Selenium
source : haguewater.com/reverse-osmosis/
Plumbing is a large and complicated area of home improvement. As you’ve seen, lots of equipment, techniques, and other things exist. Given that plumbing is often a do-it-yourself type of project means that it can seem really difficult to identify what serves you best. This article’s tips can give you some help.
If you have a pipe that freezes, you should turn on the faucet that is close to the pipe; this way, the water has a place to go. By doing this, the pipe pressure is relieved, and this should stop it from bursting, which would prevent further home damage.
When trying to unclog drains, never use any chemical drain openers. The chemicals can be damaging to your skin, but will open your drain. And if you must use a chemical cleaner, make sure you always protect your skin by wearing gloves and a proper long-sleeved shirt.
Be sure that the overflow holes are free of debris. These overflow holes are present in case of a clog or overfilling. It may seem unlikely as a problem now, but the necessity is there. When you do periodic checks for any other problems or repairs that are needed, take the time to clear the holes that are there to protect you from overflow.
If you have pipes that are clogged, try a cleaner that is enzyme based. The natural enzymes in these cleaners dissolve the clog, turning it into liquid, freeing it from the pipes. The cleaners that have enzymes are the best you can buy.
Insulation should be used in areas that are cut off from heat during the winter. For example, this includes crawl spaces, attics and within exterior walls. If the insulation isn’t sufficient, you can easily remedy it by buying new insulation that wraps around the pipe. Not only will this keep your pipes from bursting, it can also help your hot water stay hot as it travels from the water heater to your shower or sink.
A normal pipe snake can clean out your washing machine’s drain stack if it backs up. Your washing machine can back up if small things get caught in the pipe, like lint.
Check carefully around the base of your toilet for any damage caused by leaks. Do this by straddling the commode and rocking from side to side. You are looking for any feelings of weakness or softening of the floor itself. Discovering this issue sooner can mean big savings for your checking account, as compared to finding out about it later.
If you start to have sewage backup inside your toilet, it is because of blockage that is inside the branch line which connects the sewage line and the main line. If you cannot clear the blockage, you will have to contact a professional, who will run a snake along the line to clear it.
There are a lot of different ways to keep your plumbing running smoothly. What works for one home may not work for another home, but the plumbing world has something for every house. This article probably helped you come up with strategies to manage your own plumbing system.
“Water, water everywhere and not a drop to drink,” as the old saying goes. A more apt statement for these times might be, “water, water everywhere, but is it safe to drink?” And if it’s not, what is a reliable water purification process?
Sadly, in this day and age there are few, if any, places where the water is safe to drink without treating, no matter how pristine and inviting it may look.
Water in the wild often contains harmful microorganisms, bacteria and parasites that can cause a variety of ailments, such as giardia, dysentery, hepatitis, and hookworms. Luckily, however, we’re going to learn a few simple ways how to purify water to make it safe for consumption.
I. How to Purify Water — Water Purification Process: boiling
The simplest method to purify water is probably boiling.
You need to bring the water to a full, rolling boil for at least five minutes to be safe, with some experts recommending an even longer time. The down side to boiling your drinking water is that it removes the oxygen and the water ends up tasting flat. You can improve its quality by pouring it back and forth between two containers to put oxygen back in, or simply shake it up.
II. Water Purification Process: purifiers
There are also several chemical purifiers on the market. Iodine comes in either liquid form, (which can be messy), or tablet form.
One to two tablets or drops will clear up a quart of water. Shake your water bottle or container and wait twenty minutes before drinking. Water treated with iodine will have a darker color and a bit of an unpleasant flavor.
It is possible to mask this flavor by adding a powdered drink mix, but be sure to wait the twenty minutes before adding it, as it will interfere with the iodine’s effectiveness.
Other chemical treatments to purify water that work similarly to iodine are chlorine tablets, potassium permanganate, or halazone tablets. You should be able to pick these up fairly cheaply at most outdoor stores.
You can even add a few drops of bleach in a pinch, though I wouldn’t recommend overusing this one. It is important when using chemical purification to make sure all surfaces have been decontaminated.
After waiting the twenty minutes, slightly unscrew the lid of your water bottle or container and rinse around the threads and lid. The nice thing about using tablets is the container is very small and portable and can be slipped into a pocket, a plus if you do not want to carry a stove or pot, or take the time to boil water. Chemical treatment can be done on the hoof with minimal stopping time.
III. Water Purification Process: filters
A third method of treatment is commercial filters. These come in all shapes, sizes and price ranges. Most work by pushing the water through a charcoal or ceramic filter and then chemically treating it. Normally, they have one hose with a float that goes from the water source to the filter and a second hose, for clean water, that goes from filter to water bottle. When using this type of filter it is important to not cross contaminate the hoses. Keep the clean hose in a separate plastic bag so it never touches the contaminated hose. The plus side to this method of how to purify water is that there is no flat or funky flavor. Commercial filters are also good for when the water is on the murky or dirty side, as they will remove this also. The drawback is that the sediment or tannins that you are filtering out will quickly clog up the filter. Some can be cleaned, with others you need to buy a replacement filter. Like all technical equipment, cost and breakage are things to be considered.
IV. Water Purification Process: primitive methods
Beyond these common methods, there are more primitive techniques for the serious survivalists (or the unlucky person who was caught unprepared).
One is filtering through soil or, preferably, sand. Keep rinsing the water repeatedly through the sand until it is looking clear. A variation of this is to dig a hole near where the source is and use the water that filters through into the hole. Be aware, that although soil is a good filter for sediment and other particles, it is not a guarantee for things like bacteria. This is even true for spring water, which many people assume is safe to drink without treatment.
Distilling is a method that can be used for either collecting water or gathering fresh water out of salt water.
To collect water from the ground, dig a deep hole and place a collecting container or water bottle in the center.
Cover the hole with a clear sheet of plastic. The plastic needs to be weighted in the center with a rock or heavy object so that it points down into the container.
Then, secure the sides of the plastic tightly around the hole, such as by covering with dirt. The clear plastic acts like a greenhouse. The water in the soil evaporates as it heats up. When it hits the plastic it runs down to the point and drips off into the container. If all you have is salt water, you can distill it by placing a small pot inside a larger pot. The salty water goes in the larger pot but not the smaller one.
Invert a lid over the pots that will point down into the smaller pot, then bring the water to a boil. As the water boils, fresh water will evaporate, hit the lid and drip down into the smaller pot, leaving the salt, or other minerals behind.
An alternative if you don’t have a smaller pot is to put a cloth over the pot the will absorb the steam. Use caution when removing it to wring it out so you don’t get burned.
For another primitive method of how to purify water, see our article on Boiling Water with Stones.
Above all, be cautious and use common sense when choosing where to gather your water.
Do the plants surrounding it look healthy?
Are there dead animals near by that might have contaminated it?
Don’t collect any water that looks stagnant. Generally, water that is further upstream will be cleaner than that downstream, but there are no guarantees.
Don’t automatically go for the fasting rushing water, as fast water carries more sediment. You can avoid picking up a lot of sediment by making sure you dunk your water bottle completely under the water. This will avoid all the dirt and debris that floats on the surface.
With so many ways to purify water, there should be something for everyone and no reason to ever take chances drinking untreated water.
There are die-hards out there who will argue that the risk is small and not worth worrying about. But a nasty case of beaver fever in the back country can be not only uncomfortable, but life threatening.
Diarrhea and vomiting can cause serious dehydration and sap your strength to the point that you can get yourself to safety.
source : natureskills.com/survival/water-purification-process/
Panic is the first emotion that most people feel when they have plumbing issues. This is a perfectly normal emotion. But, you do not have to feel this way if you have the proper plumbing education. This article is going to be giving you the plumbing education you need to help you fix your problem.
If you have noisy pipes, you can cushion them with a rubber blanket or add additional anchor straps. Banging pipes are usually caused by loose pipes, water hammering to a stop as you turn it off, or hot water pipes shifting in their position. All of these problems can be solved by cushioning and anchoring the pipes.
Be sure that you shut off your drain lines and outside faucets when the weather gets colder. Cold weather, snow, and ice can cause these lines to freeze up, which can cause damage to them. If you can, try to have these shut off before the first frost of the year.
It is important to know how to properly anchor your pipes when it comes to plumbing. This is extremely important to know because not having your pipes well anchored could result in loud noises, leaks, or pressure problems. Call a professional if you are unsure how to take care of it yourself.
If you are the kind of person who likes to listen to music when you work, then you should be sure to avoid using headphones. A radio is a much smarter choice, as it will allow you to hear the music you want, without distracting you from hearing important sounds.
Before starting a plumbing project be sure to know your pipes. Each pipe has a different use and every municipality has different codes for what pipes can be used for. Making a mistake in this area can be very costly, if you are forced to remove all the pipes from the work you have just completed.
Insulating pipes in unheated areas of your house can save you the headache of burst pipes and flooding down the road. If you find that a room with pipes is especially cold, you should also use caulk to seal any holes in the walls, or any cracks around windows to ensure no drafts get in.
One of the most inexpensive plumbing issues is a running toilet. Simply by understanding how a toilet actually functions is the first best tool in avoiding a running toilet. If you understand the function of the lever and floater, you will be able to fix any running toilet in no time.
If your sink is letting rusty water out and it will not drain, it is mostly likely because of the biological scum and grease that is built up in the pipes. You need to have your drains professionally cleaned, allowing maximum flow through your drains. Your drains must be open completely.
As was stated in the beginning of the article, the first reaction that people have when their plumbing is not working properly is panic. That is why this article was created — to help those with plumbing problems become educated in the subject in order for them to relax and get the problem fixed efficiently.
img source : picstopin.com
Through the Municipal Development Program, rural communities in Nicaragua have been able to develop new water systems to improve their quality of life. Funded by USAID, the Municipal Development Program works to strengthen municipal governance and citizen involvement by empowering citizens and improving basic service delivery. The program works by helping local governments be more responsive to their citizens and develop citizen’s positive perception of their leadership.
Credit- Global Communities
The rural residents of Bulun 1, nearly 200 kilometers from Managua in the municipality of Santo Domingo, Chontales, celebrate the inauguration of their new water system.
Credit- Global Communities
The new system provides potable water to 325 inhabitants of Bulun 1.
Credit- Global Communities
The project was designed in close consultation with the community as part of the Municipal Development Program funded by USAID. The goal of the program is to strengthen municipal management and local governance while improving the provision of municipal services to communities.
Credit- Global Communities
For the first time residents of Bulun 1 have water provided directly to their homes.
Credit- Global Communities
The improved water quality will reduce gastrointestinal diseases of the inhabitants of Bulun I, especially among those most vulnerable to disease.
Credit- Global Communities
Through the Municipal Development Program, rural communities in Nicaragua have been able to develop new water systems to improve their quality of life. Funded by USAID, the Municipal Development Program works to strengthen municipal governance and citizen involvement by empowering citizens and improving basic service delivery.
Credit- Global Communities
The residents of two rural communities in San Isidro inaugurate their new water system. The new system has improved the quality and quantity of water for nearly 500 residents of Winston Castillo and Monte Grande.
Credit- Global Communities
A young girl tests the new potable water system in her town.
To find out more about Global Communities/CHF International please visit: http://www.chfinternational.org/
source : trust.org by : By CHF International
LONDON (AlertNet) – Information technology is a powerful tool for experts working to provide secure access to water for personal use, food production and business in developing nations.
Giving poor people proper access to safe water and sanitation would save 2.5 million people a year from dying from diarrhoea and other diseases spread by a lack of hygiene, according to charity WaterAid.
The widespread availability of mobile phones has enabled the development of low-cost solutions aimed at improving water security and reducing poverty.
Three quarters of the world’s 7 billion people have access to a mobile phone, according to a World Bank report. There are 6 billion mobile subscriptions worldwide, of which almost 5 billion are in developing countries.
This is where mobile networks come in — they have led to the development of communication services that aim to increase the transparency and reliability of water delivery. For example, mobile technology has allowed service providers to monitor water supply to prevent theft and leakages, while offering more effective repairs and billing.
But these innovative efforts still face huge political and logistical challenges, complicated by the risks linked to climate change, experts say.
Here are five mobile strategies that are already helping people get better access to water and sanitation.
Timely data on the state of water infrastructure is key to implementing a secure water supply. Akvo FLOW (Field Level Operations Watch) is a mobile application that uses Android-operated devices, the internet and map-reporting tools in Google Maps and Google Earth to collect, analyse and report data for monitoring water supplies.
The system, which has been used in 17 countries in Africa, Asia, Central America and South America since 2010, was developed by two non-profit organisations: Water For People, which helps communities in developing countries access clean drinking water; and Akvo, which creates web and mobile software to improve the delivery of humanitarian aid.
In 2011, the Liberian government, assisted by the World Bank, used Akvo FLOW to map 10,000 water points in Liberia.
SMART-CARD TAP SYSTEM
Lifelink, developed by Denmark-based Grundfos AS, uses submersible borehole pumps powered by solar or wind power to deliver water to an elevated storage tank.
Gravity forces the water to flow into a tap unit in a small building, which also serves as a payment facility. Customers buy water credits that are stored on a “smart card”, using mobile-phone banking. They insert the smart card into a slot at the tap unit to purchase water.
A percentage of the money goes towards service and maintenance. Lifelink staff can monitor water pressure, temperature and the amount of water tapped from anywhere in the world via the internet.
The company, which provides the service in urban and rural communities, says it has implemented drinking-water supply systems for 100,000 people in Kenya, and is expanding into other African countries and Asia.
WATER MANAGEMENT BY SMS
A mobile-to-web platform designed to regulate water management is improving water delivery in West Africa.
The mWater service – used by 240 small public-private piped water schemes in Senegal, Mali, Benin and Niger – allows water-service operators to share information with national authorities and financial institutions via mobile phone.
Text messages provide data about water production levels, account balances and service disruptions. mWater generates real-time reports, and also archives data to provide water-scheme managers with monthly reports, which can be emailed or downloaded.
Today, more than 25 percent of rural and small-town populations in western and central Africa are served by small piped water schemes, a proportion that is expected to rise to 80 percent by 2015, according to the Manobi Development Foundation.
Experts estimate that a third of handpumps supplying water to some of the world’s poorest people are broken at any given time, according to Rob Hope, a researcher at Britain’s University of Oxford Mobile/Water for Development (MW4D) programme.
Hope is part of a team developing a mobile system that coordinates access to, payment for and upkeep of handpumps, which are often installed and then left for the local community to manage with varying success.
The “smart handpumps” automatically transmit water use and performance data over the mobile network, sending a text message to alert engineers of a breakdown.
Data provides water output estimates that show fluctuations in daily to seasonal demand levels. The mobile application is being tested in 70 villages in Kenya’s drought-prone Kyuso district, as part of a year-long pilot project funded by Britain’s Department for International Development (DFID).
HANDPUMP SERVICE CENTRES
More than half of India’s village handpumps are not working and remain out of use for more than 30 days due to a shortage of mechanics, according to WaterAid.
In response, the charity has set up handpump service centres, known locally as Public Panchayat Participatory (PPP) centres, operated by locally trained mechanics in two districts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states.
The condition of village handpumps is monitored by the centres and repairs coordinated by mobile phone.
Between January 2011 and March 2012, the centres oversaw the repair of more than 4,500 handpumps serving almost 338,000 people, according to WaterAid.
Only 6 percent of the repairs took longer than two days to complete, and this was usually down to remote location, the need for major work or a lack of spare parts, the charity says.
Source : trust.org
Having good plumbing is very important to having a safe and healthy home. However, plumbing problems do arise and having a plumber come out might not be feasible because of the timing or costs. This article provides some fantastic tips for maintaining and fixing your home plumbing.
You can resolve most toilet clogs yourself. Try a plunger first. If plunging the toilet doesn’t seem to clear up a clog, check the toilet’s water level. If it’s too low, try filling a bucket with warm water. Open the toilet’s tank, and pour the water in. Repeat this once your water goes back to a lower level.
If you work outside for long periods, don’t stay in the sun too long. Exposure to direct sunlight can be very dangerous, so don’t work so hard that you forget to take breaks.
If you have a shower head that needs replacing, be sure to get one that is good quality. Some people think that one shower head is like any other, so decide on price alone. Like many cheap products, however, cheap shower heads are often not durable.
Check with the Department of Consumer Affairs when shopping for a good plumbing contractor. They provide many useful services, such as the ability to file a service complaint review complaints, and confirm that they are licensed. If their license is questionable or expired, you won’t want to hire them to do work for you.
Look for the right type for both galvanized steel and threaded plastic joints to get the tightest connection possible. Check with your local hardware store to find what you’re looking for.
Figure out the size of the water tank you need, this will help you save some money on energy bills. Having an idea as to how much water is being used by each appliance and people in your home will let you decide on the best size for your hot water tank.
Having plumbing tools around the house may feel like an unnecessary and expensive choice, but the tools could save you tons of money in the long run. Follow free online videos to learn about a number of essential plumbing skills. Investing some money in good tools can spare you the cost of calling a plumbing professional.
An expensive plumbing issue to pay for repairs is when your pipes freeze. Fortunately, frozen pipes are easy to prevent. Find out if all of your outdoor pipes are properly insulated. Before winter, drain your hoses and disconnect your outdoor faucets. This will keep you from paying too much to your plumber.
Keep the garbage disposal clean to make sure it will last as many years as your house does. Keep your garbage disposal fresh and running by using dish soap, cherry pits and lemon rinds regularly.
There are many methods that you can learn to fix plumbing. By utilizing these tips in your home, you can not only fix your plumbing in an emergency, but you can also cut costs by reducing the need for a professional plumber.
img source: plumbingandsewerrepair.com
Clean, safe water is vital for every day life. Water is essential for health, hygiene and the productivity of our community.
The water treatment process may vary slightly at different locations, depending on the technology of the plant and the water it needs to process, but the basic principles are largely the same. This section describes standard water treatment processes.
Coagulation / Flocculation
During coagulation, liquid aluminium sulfate (alum) and/or polymer is added to untreated (raw) water. When mixed with the water, this causes the tiny particles of dirt in the water to stick together or coagulate. Next, groups of dirt particles stick together to form larger, heavier particles called flocs which are easier to remove by settling or filtration.
As the water and the floc particles progress through the treatment process, they move into sedimentation basins where the water moves slowly, causing the heavy floc particles to settle to the bottom. Floc which collects on the bottom of the basin is called sludge, and is piped to drying lagoons. In Direct Filtration, the sedimentation step is not included, and the floc is removed by filtration only.
Water flows through a filter designed to remove particles in the water. The filters are made of layers of sand and gravel, and in some cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration collects the suspended impurities in water and enhances the effectiveness of disinfection. The filters are routinely cleaned by backwashing.
Water is disinfected before it enters the distribution system to ensure that any disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites are destroyed. Chlorine is used because it is a very effective disinfectant, and residual concentrations can be maintained to guard against possible biological contamination in the water distribution system.
Solids that are collected and settled out of the water by sedimentation and filtration are removed to drying lagoons.
Water fluoridation is the treatment of community water supplies for the purpose of adjusting the concentration of the free fluoride ion to the optimum level sufficient to reduce dental caries. Hunter Water is required to fluoridate water in accordance with the NSW Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies Act 1957.
Lime is added to the filtered water to adjust the pH and stabilise the naturally soft water in order to minimise corrosion in the distribution system, and within customers’ plumbing.
source : hunterwater.com.au / img : flexiblelearning.net.au